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Tuesday, July 9, 2013

Mercury Textiles Definitions

Musk-Ox Wool

A "curiosity" wool with the colour of the darkest cashmere. The animal is more or less intermediate between sheep and ox, and is widely distributed along the Arctic Circle. It seems to be a good coarse substitute for cashmere, an is not unlike Indian wool.

Muslin

The name is derived from the City of Mossoul, where the fabric was first made (Marco Polo), (see Mosolin). It is a very light open plain weave cloth used for summer dresses and made in numerous qualities from super yarnsm such as 52 ends and 60 picks per inch, 80's warp, 70's weft. Hair muslin has fine cord stripes. Cammed muslin is in the same as hair muslin, but two single threads weave together to form cords.
Shirting muslins are heavier, such as 90 ends and 88 picks per inch, 90's warp, 100's weft; 80 ends and 86 picks per inch, 80's warp, 100's weft. Cambric muslins are between the light muslins and shirting muslins, about 70 ends and 56 picks per inch, 60's warp, 80's weft. Paper muslins are made about this quality. All muslins are bleached, dyed or printed in a soft finish. Book muslin and Tarleton muslin are not muslins, but hard finished plain cloths.
Muslins were not always plain, but had silk or even gold stripes woven in when made in Mossoul, but as cotton grew plentifully around the two and the women could spin yarns of great fineness, the cotton yarns gradually superseded silk.

Ottoman

A dress fabric of warp rib weave from hard spun yards. Originally silk was used, but now botany yarns or cotton is employed. The ribs may be formed at intervals to give stripes effects. The rib is known as the Ottoman cord, and is broad and flat. It is much used as a ground weave for figured poplins in which silk and wool or silk and cotton are the yarns.

There are three sizes of ottoman ribs known as Soleil, Ottoman and Ottoman Cord. Soleil has the smallest rib and is made in many qualities (see Soleil). Ottom has a bolder rib than the Soleil and is made slightly heavier, such as 104 ends and 78 picks per inch or even higher, using the same yarns. Ottoman Cord is like Ottoman, but the ribs are of different sizes and arranged alternately.


Seersucker

This term is common in the USA, and given to a plain and crimped stripe fabric either bleached or dyed, and used for drapery and furnishes as well as dress purposes. A common quality is 40-in wide 64 ends and 64 picks per inch, 26's warp, 20's weft. Woven from two beams in stripes of plain weave and crim which is also plain weave. The plain ground ends are firmly weighted and the criming ends are lightly weighted. Fance designs are obtained by using colour or rayon in the warps.

Viscose

Viscose was discovered by two English chemists, Charles F. Cross and E.J Bevan, working in collaboration at Kew, near London, who found that when cellulose was treated with disulphide of carbon in the presence of caustic soda, it was converted into a golden yellow plastic compound which dissolved rapidly in water. A solution of the plastic was of such viscosity that it was named 'viscose' a name that was destined to become world famous, seeing that round about 88 per cent of the world production of rayon is now made by the viscose process. In 1892 Cross and Bevan were granted a patent on the viscose process and it applied to many purposes before the production of a textile thread was successfully accomplished.
Fundamentally, the manufacture of viscose rayon is fairly simple. The raw material may be wood pulp, pulp from cotton linters, or a mixture of the two. The greater part of the world's viscose is made from wood pulp. Viscose rayon manufacture comprises seven distinct treatments as follows:
1. Making and purifying the cotton or wool pulp which forms the cellulose base
2.Caustic soda treatment of the cellulose base thereby forming alkalai cellulose.
(Sorry, I did not capture the last 5 points)

Wadding

Fabric comprised of wool fibres felted into a compact mass by the application of heat, moisture and pressure without weaving. Used extensively in tailoring, for upholstery, padding cushions, laundry presses and other machine purposes.

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